Indian Green Revolution
In probably every book in school, one would have gone through the statement “India is an agricultural country”, but things were not the same immediately post-independence. India had the ideal terrain and soil quality required for the cultivation of crops, but due to a lack of proper inputs and equipment, the output was never enough to feed the country's own people. It was only in the 1960s that the Indian Government focused on the aspect of revolutionizing the way agriculture is practiced in India. Thus, imports of modern agricultural machinery like tractors, harvesters, and high yielding variety of seeds were allowed and encouraged in India.
Role of Tractors in Green Revolution
If we must name a machine associated with agriculture, then without a doubt, the first thing which would come into anyone’s mind would be tractors. In India, till the initial years of 1960, tractors were imported from countries like Germany, the UK, and Poland. The green revolution refers to a period when agriculture in India was brought into the modern era due to the adoption of high yield seeds, pesticides, irrigation, fertilizers, and most importantly, tractors. The earliest tractors under the Green Revolution – DT 14 and Belarus - were brought from Russia.
From 1961, since the local production of tractors started, India has seen exponential growth. Mahindra, Eicher, HMT, Gujarat Tractors ltd., Massey Ferguson were a few companies that started manufacturing tractors in India, including every tractor category, from mini tractor to heavy duty tractor. From the preliminary days of producing 52000 units, India now produces one-third of the world’s total production and is also one of the prime exporters of tractors. Along with foreign brands who have invested in the Indian tractor market, there have been quite a few homegrown brands that have pioneered in tractor manufacturing, like the Mahindra tractor, Preet tractor, and Ace tractor.
Tractors form an important part of farm mechanization and play a vital role in increasing overall productivity. The best part about tractors is its wide range of usage - not only can a tractor be used for harvesting but also, as and when required, implements can be attached and can be used for various other purposes. It can be even used as a mode of transport and for support in the construction industry. The number of tractors used for cultivation increased from 0.3 lakh in 1960-61 to about 20 lakhs in 1999-2000.
Few important facts about tractors and its contribution to the green revolution are below
The facility of providing credit to tractor buyers was first started in the Green Revolution package program. Today, various financial institutions in India are providing credits at subsidized rates to allow farmers to buy tractors.
Government is running various awareness programs to increase knowledge about farm mechanization and how tractors play a crucial role in the same.
The overall food production cost in India is cheapest compared to all other countries in the world. This is due to the role of the technologies introduced under the green revolution.
The Green Revolution has helped India increase the total production of crops, increase yields, expand irrigation, and increase the use of fertilizers and pesticides. All this was made possible by introducing and promoting tractors in farming.