Floriculture is an international, multi-billion dollar industry, encompassing the production of foliage plants, garden plants, potted flowering plants, cut cultivated greens and floriculture materials. Potted plants and flowers are able to generate excess production in temperate climates. Floriculture is largely considered as a greenhouse industry, however you can cultivate the many flowers outdoors in nurseries or crop fields.
In the horticulture industry, floriculture is one of the most prominent components. Floriculture is encouraged to generate employment opportunities yearly and earn foreign exchange. In many countries, the value-added products of various floriculture are the main export items from the agricultural sector.
What is the Meaning of Floriculture? Introduction of Floriculture!
Floriculture is a horticulture branch that deals with processing of farming with ornamental plants, marketing and landscaping of small or large regions. Apart from this, Maintenance of gardens so that the surroundings look aesthetically pleasing. Floriculture includes biennial and perennial ornamentals, annual (seasonal) such as cacti and other succulents, shrubs, bromeliads, trees, climbers, bulbous plants, lawn and ornamental grasses, palms, cycads, foliage, bedding production. Apart from this, it also has pots and house plants, cut and loose flowers, fillers, ferns, seeds and bulbs, ornamental flowers or parts of plants. There are other value-added products, such as the food dyes, extraction of essential oils and their marketing, making and maintaining gardens.
Types of Floriculture
Cut flowers- Cut flowers are the type of floriculture that have been cut together with branches, roots and leaves for use in decorations or bouquets.
Pot Plants- These leafy plants can grow in pots and are suitable for home gardening and indoor cultivation.
Dried flowers- These are flowers that are mainly used after drying. These dried flowers can serve a period of one year if they get the best care and use for different occasions.
Bedding Plants- In this type, farmers sow the seeds indoors in the off-season and later in the growing season, the plants are transplanted.
Hanging Plants- These are perennial or annual flowers or other leafy plants used for ornamental purposes. These are suspended from the ceiling by ropes.
Classification of Ornamental Floriculture
The cultivation of these ornamental plants is called ornamental floriculture, which is a part of horticulture. You can thrive these plants for display purposes rather than functional ones. In addition, here we discuss ornamental plant classifications.
1. Ornamental Floriculture in Winter Season
Winter season annuals are hardy; you can grow these during the rigours of winters and can tolerate low temperatures. However, farmers sow the seeds of annuals from September to October and transplant the seedlings from October to November. These plants are candytuft, antirrhinum, nasturtium, larkspur, pansy, petunia, phlox, sweet sultan, verbena, etc.
2. Ornamental Floriculture in Summer Season
Farmers grow these plants during the summer and can use high temperatures to generate flowers. They sow the seeds in February−end or the beginning of March, and transplant the seedlings at the end of March or April. These plants are cosmos, gaillardia, gomphrena, Kochia, sunflower, tithonia, portulaca, zinnia, etc.
3. Ornamental Floriculture in Rainy season
Farmers grow these ornamental plants in the rainy season. You can produce these flowers under rain and higher humidity than other annuals. In addition, they sow the seeds in June and can transplant the seedlings in July. These plants are amaranthus, celosia, balsam, cock’s comb, gaillardia, etc.
Some Tips for Flower Plantation Business
When starting a flower farm, you should know some tips with better recommendations. We are discussing various tips to grow the ideal flowers:-
1. Site preparation with Soil Test
Selecting the right location is another essential key to successfully cultivating flowers. Most flowers grow from full to partial sun, so it’s important to choose a spot with enough light to help your flowers grow. Start with a soil test in the place you’ve chosen for your garden. According to the results, either the soil is more acidic or alkaline.
2. Floriculture Nursery
Nurseries are competent for distributing and multiplying plants and planting material. Apart from this, it provides general guidance on ornamental gardening and garden maintenance. A retail or wholesale company for the supply of various types of plants and planting material, such as preparing plants of trees and nursery seedlings.
3. G.G.N. Certified Floriculture
G.G.N. label is a globally recognized symbol of good agricultural practices. Also, it stands for Accredited, Accountability and Responsible Farming and aims to help customers make educated choices about their grocery shopping. In addition, you can apply the G.G.N Labels with GLOBAL GAP on flowers and ornamental items produced on farms and nurseries. Also, Accredited production processes – or certification from global G.A.P. Equivalent analysis plan.
4. Select the Annual Flower Blooms
If you want to buy annual flower blooms, look for healthy plants and avoid plants with roots at the bottom of pots. Yellow leaves are also a sign of problems. Moreover, you should choose flowering plants instead of open flowers.
Scope of Floriculture
- The opportunities for commercial floriculture in India enhancing due to aesthetically varied uses of flowers and a substantial increase in the demand of the people.
- The demand for flowering plants, such as tulips, garlands, and veni is increasing day by day.
- Geographically and strategically, our country is well situated between the major flower markets, i.e. East Asia and Europe.
- In India, the diverse agro-climatic conditions enable the development of all types of flowers in one season or the other.
- In addition, landscaping has become an integral part of urban gardening, adding aesthetic value to a place, noise pollution, protecting the environment, reducing air and promoting eco-tourism.
How to do a Floriculture Business Plan Strategy?
The flower farming business plan is the best but there are some requirements for cultivating in the open field. But some difficulties occur labour, high maintenance, and potential for pests and other problems related to weather conditions. A controlled environment can be a great way to increase profits in floriculture. The degree of control will determine the investment for your agricultural project. There are several options for creating a controlled environment. To start, you can have a simple greenhouse, but building a greenhouse with a drip irrigation system is even more helpful. This will require that you choose the right plant, get the right customers, market the product, and, when ready, sell the product at a higher price.
Greenhouse for Flower Cultivation in India
Greenhouses for most organic floriculture and rose cultivation, especially floriculture cut flowers, are essential. You can grow the rose plants while the capacity in open ground ranges from 3.75 lakh stems to 5 lakh stems per year. Moreover, cultivation in a greenhouse system can yield 4.75 lakh to 8 lakh per acre per year. So you can say that it is almost double in quantity. And better is that, you grow the roses in the greenhouse for better quality and suitable for export, with better quality and prices, which get result in higher profits. However, the common flowers are Gerbera, Orchid, Anthurium, Lily, Rose, and Carnation.
Market Demand and Supply of Flowers in India
Flowers have mainly two components and the demand for flowers is seasonal. They are a seasonal and steady component. The demand for flowers is different for modern and traditional flower plants.
Traditional Flowers – The constant demand for traditional flowers comes from using flowers for religious and decoration purposes. Also, this demand is mainly strong in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Odisha and West Bengal. Most of the seasonally sought-after flowers come from weddings and festivals. Usually, the demand is for specific flowers.
Modern Flowers – The highest demand for modern flowers comes from institutions like, guest houses, hotels and marriage gardens. Therefore, the market is concentrated in urban areas. The price of these flowers also depends on their demand and varies accordingly.
Importance of Floriculture
|Major Venture||Floriculture is a major emerging venture in the world, especially as a money maker for many countries.|
|High-Value Flowers||Modern-day floriculture refers to the high-value of cut flowers such as Rose, Orchids, Gladiolus, Carnation, Tuberose, Anthurium, Lilium, Gerbera etc,.|
|Sign of Beauty||Flowers have long been recognized as sophistication and an embodiment of beauty, as well as a visual feast.|
|Use for Felicitation||Flowers are also offered as wedding gifts, birthday presents and the duration of recuperating the patients.|
|Employment Opportunity||Floriculture produces self employment opportunities around the year. The employment opportunities in this sector are different as the nature of the work.|
|Production||In different countries of the world, more than three lakh hectares of flowers are being produced.|
For Further information about floriculture and horticulture, cut flower farm business plan, floriculture sustainability initiative and floriculture orchids, stay tuned with Tractorguru.
Que. What is the difference between horticulture and floriculture?
Ans. The main difference is that floriculture involves foliage plants and flowering, while horticulture involves various types of garden crops.
Que. What is the Floriculture business?
Ans. Floriculture includes ornamental plants used as raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry and perfumery segment.
Que. How to start a Flower Business?
Ans. A flower businessman requires a licence of business like other businesses in addition to gaining access to local farmers.
Que. Can we grow the flowers hydroponically?
Ans. Flowers popular in the florist trade are generally good for hydroponic culture.
Que. Which flower is most profitable in farming?
Ans. Rose farming is the most profitable business for farmers among other farming In India and the minimum rose cultivated in 1 Acre.